Look at the bottleneck from a new perspective of the development of new energy vehicles
since this year, as the United States, Japan, Germany and other major new energy vehicle producing countries have formulated industrial incentive policies for the development of new energy vehicles and increased investment in research, development and production, a new round of new energy vehicle competition has begun to unfold around the world. China has also accelerated the development of new energy vehicles, but there are different views on the key bottleneck restricting the development of new energy vehicles in China. Some people believe that battery technology needs to be improved, some people believe that battery management system constraints, and others believe that supporting facilities are not perfect
at the 2009 Seminar on the development strategy of the electric vehicle industry held recently, Yang Yusheng, an academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering, said, "the key bottleneck restricting the development of new energy vehicles in China is the concept problem, and the development of new energy vehicles must be updated." Yang Yusheng believes that there are misunderstandings in the development of new energy vehicles at present, such as requiring pure electric vehicles based on the indicators of fuel vehicles, only producing pure electric vehicles above the medium level, giving priority to the development of hybrid electric vehicles, and the service life of power batteries is too short. Yang Yusheng's views caused waves in the industry
give priority to the development of pure electric vehicles
following the new energy vehicle technology demonstration of the 2008 Beijing Olympic emergency stop key safeguard stroke games, the state has launched the demonstration and promotion of "thousands of new energy vehicles in ten cities" in public services such as public transport and taxis through fiscal incentives. Judging from the progress of the demonstration and promotion of "ten cities and thousands of vehicles", hybrid vehicles are mainly used in all regions. In this regard, there are different views in the industry. The relevant person in charge of Beida Xianxian Technology Industry Co., Ltd. believes that China is at the same level as the foreign advanced level in the development of pure electric vehicles, and even ahead of the scale application. There is a gap between China's hybrid vehicles and foreign countries, and its hybrid system has been very mature. The sales price of some companies has been lower than that of China, and the performance advantage is obvious. The joint venture channel provides a through train for the system to enter China. If this round of development focuses on hybrid vehicles, it will be a fatal blow to China's new energy vehicle industry
Lin Cheng, deputy director of the electric vehicle engineering technology center of Beijing University of technology, said that hybrid vehicles are new energy vehicles that can comprehensively replace traditional vehicles at this stage, but their core powertrain depends on the progress of engine technology. Foreign enterprises have platformized the powertrain of hybrid electric vehicles and promoted them to developing countries at low prices. If China does not make efforts, it is likely to follow the old path of traditional vehicles. However, China's pure electric commercial vehicles started early, and the technology and application have formed a system. Compared with foreign countries, they have technical advantages, good energy conservation and emission reduction effects, which are in line with China's national conditions, and can be mainly promoted and applied in urban public transportation, municipal sanitation, postal services and other fields. "Relevant government departments should conduct more research, encourage and guide domestic new energy vehicle enterprises to take the road in line with China's national conditions and characteristics"
in response to the industry's query that "pure electric vehicles have low power battery specific capacity and short driving range", Yang Yusheng introduced a dual charging technology suitable for pure electric vehicles. "Restricted by traffic conditions, the average speed of urban buses rarely exceeds 50 kilometers per hour during driving. An 11 meter long bus only needs about 30 kW of power. If equipped with a 30-40 kW generator set with dynamic control function and charged during driving, the electric bus can operate continuously. The double rechargeable electric vehicle is still fully electric driven, and the range is increased by oil. At the same time, it is different from the series hybrid, which reduces The capacity of the battery is increased, the service life is prolonged, and the adoption of the finalized small generator set can reduce the one-time investment and operation cost, and the maintenance cost is also greatly reduced. " According to Yang Yusheng, the manufacturing cost of Beijing Keling's double charged electric bus is only 700000-800000 yuan, including 50000 yuan of lead-acid batteries and 100000 yuan of capacitors. A double rechargeable electric bus of the company set out from Miyun, Beijing at 12:00 on June 16 and arrived in Yangzhou at noon on June 18. It was recharged halfway. It traveled a total of 1100 kilometers and consumed about 3 liters of fuel for 100 kilometers
Yang Yusheng suggested that, in addition to the wide range of utilization, the production approval right of new enterprises of pure electric vehicles should be delegated to the provincial level, and the proportion of pure electric vehicles output should be assigned to automobile enterprises, and the proportion of pure electric vehicles should be increased year by year (there are similar practices in foreign countries); If these pure electric vehicle manufacturers meet the specified requirements, the central and local governments will jointly give preferential policies to jointly promote the development of pure electric vehicles
focus on small pure electric vehicles
in pure electric vehicles, which model should be given priority? Yang Yusheng said, "affected by the cold reception of small displacement vehicles in the market a few years ago, many automobile enterprises put the pursuit of high profits in the first place. At the same time, in order to cater to the concept of using cars for middle and high-income people, enterprises have a misunderstanding in the development of pure electric vehicles, and believe that they should do above the medium level. In fact, China should give priority to the development of micro and small pure electric vehicles from the national conditions."
micro and small pure electric vehicles consume less electricity and have low prices, which are equivalent to the current consumption level in China. Consumers can afford to buy and use them. At the same time, battery manufacturers have little risk, and there are many manufacturers who can produce batteries. It is understood that mini cars consume only 6-8 degrees of electricity per 100 kilometers, and small cars consume 10-13 degrees of electricity. At present, there are many small pure electric vehicle manufacturers in Shandong, Jiangsu and other provinces. Their 3-seat and 4-seat mini cars sell for 30000 yuan with lead-acid batteries and 50000-60000 yuan with lithium-ion batteries. "It is necessary to gradually develop China's electric vehicle industry from easy to difficult, from small to large." Yang Yusheng said
Yang Yusheng's view has been recognized by many experts. Ouyang Minggao, director of the State Key Laboratory of automotive safety and energy conservation at Tsinghua University and head of the expert group for the major project of energy conservation and new energy vehicles of the National 863 plan, has repeatedly proposed on different occasions that China should focus on small electric vehicles and promote the large-scale commercialization of self owned brand new energy vehicles. In terms of market-oriented operation, the R & D and industrialization of small low-speed electric vehicles based on the industrial advantages of China's annual production of 10 million light electric vehicles and the R & D and industrialization of small conventional speed electric vehicles based on the industrial advantages of China's own brand small fuel vehicles have been vigorously carried out throughout the country. "These small electric vehicles are in line with the world trend, China's national conditions and the development law of electric vehicles themselves. It is suggested to attach importance to and support them as' National Vehicles' and 'National Vehicles' as the focus of industrialization in the next step." Ouyang Minggao said
Zhou Heliang, chairman of the electric vehicle Professional Committee of the China Electrotechnical Society, believes that low-speed, micro pure electric vehicles are closer to the market and are most likely to take the lead in industrialization. "Due to the limitation of battery energy storage efficiency, electric vehicles at this stage should be used as a supplement to traditional vehicles, for people who travel a short distance and have low requirements for speed. Starting from the low end, it is economically desirable, technically feasible, and the products have good comprehensive performance, low price, the highest cost performance, which best meets the needs of the majority of consumer groups"
Jia Xinguang, a senior expert in the automotive industry, said that the fundamental route for the development of new energy vehicles is not to replace traditional fuel vehicles. "Never expect people who drive Mercedes Benz to drive BYD dual-mode electric vehicles. New energy vehicles should look for users from people who have never used cars before, or who used to ride motorcycles and electric bicycles, so small pure electric vehicles should be the main choice of products."
enterprises as the main body
in the research and development of new energy vehicles, China has been dominated by universities and scientific research institutes during the "Tenth Five Year Plan" and "Eleventh Five Year Plan". In this regard, liuzhengyao, vice president of the New Energy Technology Research Institute of CITIC Guoan UNITA Guli company, believes that new energy vehicles are automotive products, and the government should encourage enterprises to establish research and development centers, study core application issues, and build production, University, research and application platforms. Liu Zhengyao suggested that the government should give more voice to enterprise technical experts when formulating policies, increase the proportion of enterprise technical personnel when establishing projects, and increase support for the research and development of key parts and components of enterprises
Jia Xinguang also said that the combination of industry, University, research and application should be studied with the problems in the market. The achievements of universities and scientific research institutions are far from the market, but what enterprises need most is applied research
Jin Yibo, assistant general manager and spokesman of Chery Automobile, said that the government's industrial policies, tax policies, R & D subsidies and so on are only a platform for automobile enterprises. The key is to see whether the products and technologies of enterprises meet the needs of consumers and whether enterprises are able to guide consumers to buy new energy vehicles. Of course, if the government gives more consumption incentives in consumer credit, consumer subsidies and government procurement, it will greatly accelerate the commercialization of new energy vehicles
at present, many private enterprises and private capital are keen to invest in the new energy vehicle industry. How should they be guided? In this regard, Lin Cheng believes that these enterprises can be supporting suppliers of new energy vehicles. "The supporting system of new energy vehicles is larger and broader than that of traditional vehicles, and a variety of vehicle types make the types of parts more diverse. Private enterprises should strengthen innovation and strive to become component suppliers of new energy vehicles, but they should correctly estimate their own strength and strive to master core technology, otherwise there will be risks"
"China has been in line with foreign countries in the integration technology of new energy vehicles, but it has not made a breakthrough in key parts, and it can even be said that it has missed the opportunity. Foreign key parts enterprises of new energy vehicles have infiltrated in a large-scale and systematic way." Jia Xinguang believes that the key to the development of new energy vehicles is to break through the core technology of parts, and the state should focus on supporting oneortwo battery plants and oneortwo motor plants
in this regard, Yang Yusheng said that several power battery plants should be expanded and strengthened. China can build 5-10 new battery plants with an annual output of 5 billion amps in 5-10 years. For example, high-performance modifications such as PC and peek have brought confidence to extruder enterprises. Battery plants when plastics are significantly used in electronic appliances, and vigorously support the localization of battery production equipment at the same time
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